# Power Loss Formula For 3 Phase

Find the efficiency and regulation of each transformer at unity power factor. Calculate the total 3-phase power, or "Ptotal," by adding the power of each phase together: Ptotal = P1 + P2 + P3. The symmetrical component of the fault current in phase “a” at the fault point can be written as. Line voltage is voltage between one line and another (with respect to the other line). Also, the color sequence on the four-conductor. Power supplied to secondary circuit in passing full-load current through it = 3. 3 phase motor current calculation formula is P/ (√3xVxPfxEff) or P/ (1. Figure 1 - cross section of a 3-phase submarine cable. Input to the motor on load is equal to √3V L I L cosΦ watts. Allegro MicroSystems has announced the launch of the world’s first three-phase BLDC driver IC with integrated power loss brake (PLB) features. Even after putting that much extra money into the project, the weld output of the Dimension will not be as good when it is connected to true 3-phase power. Here neutral conductor is used as the return path of the current. (Figure below). For a balanced 3-phase, 3-wire circuit, the voltage drop between any two phase conductors is 0. This number is 745 which indicates the size of wire needed: 6 AWG. At that level of horsepower it is probably a three phase motor. Click on Clear Values to start over. Your power per phase is 937 watts which is the power rating of the light fitting. In this tutorial you will find a simple explanation of AC power calculation, the usage of these quantities in specifying backup energy sources, conversion formulas, and an online calculator. It converts DC voltage to three-phase AC voltages and converts three-phase AC power demand to DC power demand. Three phase power is typically used to power large motors or other highpower loads and offers -. 5 kW and voltage of 400V, what size circuit breaker is needed for three-phase system. 2 Phase Apparent Power "S" (VA) = 2 x V phase x I phase. Balamurugan AP. Three Phase AC - Amperage - Convert between single phase (120, 240 and 480 Voltage) and three phase (240 and 480 Voltage) Three-Phase Power Equations - Electrical 3-phase equations Voltage by Country - Typical voltages and frequencies used for domestic appliances. The reactive power requirement in VAr are given by the imaginary part. e, open circuit). ‐ With eliminating the null wire energy theft is reduced ‐ It will cancel 3rd,5th and 7th harmonics and improve power quality Figure 1 shows the topology of the suggested device in a distribution network. Langsdorf, Theory of Alternating Current Machinery, 2nd. If the 3 wires are feeding a rectifier, charging a battery, then the current in the cables is dominated by the need to supply DC at battery voltage to the load. " Typically caused by a blown fuse, broken wire, or worn contact. 2-element meters. Video Lecture on Power Consumed in Three Phase Circuits of Chapter Three Phase Circuits of Subject Basic Electrical Engineering for First-Year Engineering Students. The power dissipated at the load would be 240 watts. The below section of this page provides you the three-phase transformer capacity formula which helps you to calculate the capacity of a 3 phase transformer with the known values of kVA, volts, and amps. Total cu loss = Cu loss in bars + Cu loss in end rings. Single phase motors, heating and cooling loads are very commonly connected in such a manner that one phase conductor carries significantly more current than the other two. Due to the phase relationship, neither voltage nor current flow applied to an IT. 3 phase power formula The ultimate in perfumed body care, a cream as voluptuous as a balm, with its generous formula rich in shea butter and argan oil that thoroughly pampers and nourishes the skin. 2 -6 Mathematical Proof of Control System 3. PDF | On Apr 1, 2017, M. Supplier: Time Mark Corporation. Programmable balance of power. The power-loss analysis and efficiency maximization of a silicon-carbide MOSFET based three-phase 10kW bi-directional EV charger using variable-DC-bus control. For a 50Hz supply, modify the formulas by substitution of the factor 314 in place of 377. (Figure below). θ = Phase angle of load Cos θ = Power Factor: Motors see 6-5, 6-6,. The power in a three-phase system is measured in volt-amps. OC Formula Kit. Multiply the power consumption by the hours of operation to find kilowatt hours. 25) + 14 + 3 = 50 + 14+ 3 = 67 amps. In single phase motors, the power transferred in motors is a function of the current which is constantly varying. Planned and actual power loss reduction by means of elimination of systematic imbalances (unequal distribution of current loads on phases) is calculated by the formula; δW =ΔW(Ki1 −Ki2 ), "kWh" (6) Where ∆W - power loss in 0. This is called per phase analysis. Bibliography (1) A. In this structure the device will be. The corresponding DC power demand is equal to the sum of the fixed power loss and the AC power demand. Most commercial buildings use 3-phase power, which uses four wires – three live and one neutral – in an alternating current. Three phase power allows for greater electrical loads. The power factor always lies in a closed interval of -1 to +1. Protect motors and other equipment by detecting overvoltages, undervoltages, phase sequence, and phase loss for three-phase power supplies. (in each of the three wires) If it was a heating load, cos phi is 1 so the answer would be 8 amps. This is converted to kilowatts kW by the formula: Line Volts x Amps x 1. 73÷ 1000 x pf) or kVA x pf=kW (N. 4 Power loss calculation in 3-phase inverter 13 4. So 3600=(208*1. The power formula for 3 phase system is P=√3 *V*I*cos (phi). Researcher from the Power Electronic Systems Lab. The rated power factor of the motor. Mike Holt worked his way up through the electrical trade from apprentice electrician through electrical contractor, to become one of the most recognized experts in the world as it relates to electrical power installations. In an alternating current electric circuit, voltage and. • Large low frequency harmonic ripple current causing harmonic power loss and reduced efficiency. For determination, the expression of three phase power equation i. Voltage drop can be decreased by increasing the wire. Remember that this formula for three phase line is not valid for non-transposed lines. This paper presents numerical studies on structures to minimize AC losses in high temperature superconducting tri-axial multi-layer three-phase cable conductors. ir summation Theyields Equation (7) for the total three-phase NPC inverter switching losses. Circuit Performance:. Symmetrical Components 9. From table 430-150, they draw 40 amps, 14 amps, and 3 amps respectively. PDF | On Apr 1, 2017, M. A stylized letter. It is a type of polyphase system used to power motors and many other devices. Easy enough. 1) Increasingly popular in power-hungry, high-density data centers 2) Expensive to convert from an existing single phase installation, but 3-phase allows 3) for smaller, less expensive wiring and. Solution: kVA = 200 * 2 / 1000 = 0. In a single-phase power supply, each time the single voltage briefly becomes zero, so does the power output. As we have already shared Ohm’s Law (P,I,V,R) Calculator In which you can also calculate three phase current. This is a fundamental result of the Friis Transmission Equation. For a 3 phase power supply: kVA, which the electricity generator makes=Line Volts x Amps x 1. Neutral Currents in Three Phase Wye Systems Robert Arthur R. Complete testing of a pulse width modulation (PWM)-based drive and motor system is a three-step process. Slip Losses = Rotor Iron Loss (Negligible) + Rotor Cu loss + F & W loss. Remember that this formula for three phase line is not valid for non-transposed lines. e, open circuit). Quick online free voltage drop calculator and energy losses calculation, formula of electrical DC and AC power wire voltage drop for various cross section cables, power factor, lenght, line, three-phase, single phase. The first step to convert HP to amps is convert HP to. Three phase has properties that make it very desirable. For line to neutral voltage drop on a single phase system,. This device consists of a solid-state voltage and phase-angle sensing circuit, driving an electro-mechanical relay. Solution: I = (0. Hyosung Power & Industrial Systems – General Cast Resin … Hyosung’s cast resin transformer feature compact size, minimized power loss and noise, by adopting the latest design techniques. pf=power/VI; where; pf-power factor V-Ac voltage I-Ac current Note: This formula applies only for single phase motors, for three phase you add underroot 3 to VI Asked in Electronics Engineering. There is a common confusion about the difference between the watt and volt-amp (VA) measures for electric power, as well as about power factor. Three-phase voltage, frequency and number of wires - Electric Power Standards Around the World - Electricity Power System Worldwide - Although single-phase power is more prevalent today, three phase is still chosen as the power of choice for many different types of applications. Power, Voltage, Current & Resistance (P,V,I,R) Calculator. A 220V system with three 220V phases has a 220 * 1. AN EXPLANATION OF PHASE 3 OF THE IDEAL PROTEIN WEIGHT LOSS METHOD Michael P. 9 for a large high speed machine. Reactive power in three-phase networks. So if we calculate 15000/ (1. Analyzing system parameters 5. Power loss in a circuit is defined as: P = I^2(R). 9 the efficiency will be closer to. 99Amps / phase Eye Squared R , Jun 5, 2009. Power Load Calculator. 73 x E x Eff x PF Current (amps) I = KW x 1000 (where KW is known) 1. Three Phase Induction Motor. IJRRAS 12 (2) August 2012 Anumaka Technical Losses in Electrical Power System 321 4. 21 (or 480V nominal) which is the most common 3 phase circuit in industrial applications. A stylized bird with an open mouth, tweeting. 2% to 3% for large motors. Torque equation. The power formula for 3 phase system is P=√3 *V*I*cos (phi). In the book I'm using, in discussing how to find the total power in a circuit and how to find the total power loss, I have hit a snag. The measurement unit for current is Amperes often used as amps. AC current formula shows the formulas for both single phase and 3 phase. The power formula is W = (sq root 3) X V X I. A brownout is a drop in voltage in an electrical power supply. IJRRAS 12 (2) August 2012 Anumaka Technical Losses in Electrical Power System 321 4. 3 phase motor current calculation formula is P/ (√3xVxPfxEff) or P/ (1. 21 (or 480V nominal) which is the most common 3 phase circuit in industrial applications. Regular 3 phase delta looks like this: 3 phase delta power. 5 kVA / (√3 * 220) = 82. Features: 115 or 230 V ac line-neutral (Y), 230 or 460 V ac line to line (D) 3-phase input. The primary coils for each phase are characterized by (300 turns, 1 A/turn, 0 degrees), (300 turns, 1 A/turn, 120 degrees), and (300 turns, 1 A/turn, 240 degrees), respectively. Power loss within a cable can also be estimated from the cable current and resistance: P = I 2 R × n. For greater ease we explain that formula is used for the calculation and a table with the main conversions of kW to kWh in conversions from kW to kWh. PMD Series Three-Phase Monitor Relays continuously monitor all voltages of a three-phase system. Plus, with that high of a voltage sag, your generator doesn't have the surge capability to manage your total power requirements. Langsdorf, Theory of Alternating Current Machinery, 2nd. Notice that the three wattmeters are referenced to the system neutral. losses are met and the rest is available at the shaft. Formula to calculate power, current and voltage in three-phase wiring (unbalanced load, different loads on each of three phases) : Pt=P1+P2+P3 P1=V*I1*cosφ1 I1=P1/(V*cosφ1) Same thing for each phase… V=P1/(I*cosφ1) Pt = total power of the circuit in watt (W) P1, P2, P3 = power of phase 1, phase 2 and phase 3 in watt (W). With single-phase AC power there is only one single sinusoidal voltage. One phase of a three-level. Three Phase Transformer, Input 460VAC Delta. The power factor calculation can be done using a power triangle, the cosine of the angle between active power and apparent power is considered as power factor and it is same as the angle between supply voltage and load current. A typical question: What is the frequency and the phase angle of a sinusoidal waveform? Does "one" signal can really have a phase? Two "in-phase" waves have a phase (angle) of φ = 0 degrees. As a definition, the voltage across the load impedance and the current in the impedance can be used to compute the power per phase. Fiber optics link loss calculator allows you to work out the fiber total link loss in dB easily with few taps of button. The rectifier consists of 3 individual rectifier blocks. Back to basic, below are the simple Power formulas for Single Phase AC Circuit, Three Phase AC Circuits and DC Circuits. Three Phase. kVA rating = √3 x 11 x 5. Our 3-phase active power factor correction products are available in power levels ranging from 1 to 15 kW as individual converters and > 60 kW when paralleled as a sub-system. Circuit Diagram R V RY I R(line). Single & Three Phase Line kVA calculator is an online tool used in electrical engineering to measure the unknown quantity by two known quantities applied to the below formulas for single phase and three phase connection. Re: Three-Phase Transformer Loses One Phase 07/04/2009 3:33 AM the output will have little bit of low currents & voltages. 37, requires three over-load protective devices, one in each phase, for the protection of all three-phase motors. Most AC power today is produced and distributed as three-phase power where three sinusoidal voltages are generated out of phase with each other. Introduction Of Three Phase Half Full Wave Converter. 1 CURENT ANALYSIS OF STATCOM 34 4. A 3-phase, star-connected alternator generates 6,360 V per phase and supplies 500 kW at a p. The corresponding AC power demand is equal to the sum of the fixed power loss and the DC power demand. Simplified per-phase equivalent circuit • Core loss is embedded with friction, windage and stray-load loss v AG L d m AG d c L L P P P I R S S P I R S P I R P I R W Z W Z 3 (1 ) / 3 ( / ) 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 1. Although electrical service to residential buildings in the USA are exclusively by single phase circuits, electrical. In essence one side of the secondary Delta is physically missing, however an electrical measurement is still possible across the missing side and so it is 3 phase. Load flow simulation 3. Three-phase power systems and equipment are intended to operate with phases (Lines) balanced. A 3-phase 3-wire system does not contain a neutral. The internal resistor absorbs the 3 dB power loss for each signal. 1 R DS(ON) Dissipation The biggest source of power dissipated inside a motor driver IC is the power dissipated in the FET ON-resistance, or RDS(ON). Analyzing system parameters 5. Turn-on power loss P TT 3. Phase loss cannot be detected on the load side because this detection is based on the voltage. Voltage Asymmetry and Phase Sequence/Phase Loss Operation Diagram Relay output 250 VAC, 5 A (resistive load) 3-phase, 3-wire power supply 30 VDC, 5 A (resistive load) Phase-to-phase voltage: 200 to 480 VAC L1 L2 L3 14 12 11 Control Output Relay Output Input Voltages L1 L2 L3 14 12 11 14 12 11 L1 L2 L3 L1 L2 L3 3-phase voltage Motor Power supply. Said in a different way, Friis Transmission Equation says that the path loss is higher for higher frequencies. Multiply the power consumption by the hours of operation to find kilowatt hours. Typically, a phase loss is caused by a blown fuse, thermal overload, broken wire, worn contact or mechanical failure. This is converted to kilowatts kW by the formula: Line Volts x Amps x 1. Input to the motor on load is equal to √3V L I L cosΦ watts. This configuration would allow to control the reactive power because of “Q” axis availability. Taking this one step further, high power loads are typically powered using three phases. Since the phase impedances of balanced wye or delta loads contain equal currents, the phase power is one-third of the total power. woodworkers and the carpentries The S640p is the beast of the Professional Series Bandsaws. A 3-phase, star-connected alternator generates 6,360 V per phase and supplies 500 kW at a p. Find the amp-load of the motor. 3Ø Open Wye VP = VL ÷ 2 VL = VP X 2 WT = IL x VL WT = V L2 ÷ 2R 1 IP = IL boxes. Protect motors and other equipment by detecting overvoltages, undervoltages, phase sequence, and phase loss for three-phase power supplies. root of 3 x voltage (volts) x current (amperes). Finally, electrical power is the product of voltage and current. It is given by, S = p P2 + Q2 = V rmsI rms (10) N. Assume the motor magnetizing reactance, the motor friction loss, core loss, and windage loss are neglected to simplify the circuit. briefly at power-up. 5% for medium motors. Single phase to 3 phase power calculation input requirement = The square root of 3 (1. Fully-controllable single phase bridge rectifier with free-wheeling diode (B2CF) 5. Line-to-line voltages in a three-phase circuit typically vary by a few volts, but a difference that exceeds 1% can. Rule of thumb to sizing your inverter is -> FLA x 2 = VFD current rating. The DSP-1LM is used to transmit a signal to a PLC. They are both supplied from a 415V 3-ph system. Solution: kVA = 200 * 2 / 1000 = 0. Each of the three coil windings of the wye-connected generator supplies power, in watts, equal to Three-Phase Power. Modulation Effects on Power-Loss and Leakage Current in Three-Phase Solar Inverters Abstract: Three-phase solar inverters can be operated with different modulation strategies such as sinusoidal pulsewidth modulation (SPWM), space vector modulation (SVM), and third-harmonic injection PWM (THIPWM). In this method, emission of ions takes place from the coronating phase conductors into the surrounding space when the conductor surface field exceeds the corona onset value. Said in a different way, Friis Transmission Equation says that the path loss is higher for higher frequencies. He was a Journeyman Electrician, Master Electrician, and Electrical Contractor. It's rating is 100 KVA. the three phase network. The resultant output of two T/Fs is truly 3-phase with less relative power than three T/F configurations. 1] This only works as long as the voltages between themselves and the loads from the three phases are exactly the same. Note the orientation of the 041600 PCB and the 004652 bracket. When load is balance the load (equal current in all three phase)star point would be at zero potential, as ground, for the balanced three phase voltages, hence the transmission of power is by three. User manuals, specification sheets, CAD drawings and more. 73); Two phase-four wire formulas do not use (1. KW, KVA KW is real consumed power turned into heat, and is the product of volts x current x power factor. - Digi Power. Rigid conduit or mineral insulated (MI) IL = IP RC = VL2 ÷ WC The loss of a phase or failure of an element in a three (3) element Wye. 5% last month, against a 14. • The National Electric Code recommends a maximum 3% voltage drop for branch circuits. , ETH Zurich, worked on such a feature and the control some time ago, and implemented this in the three-phase AC/DC Vienna Rectifier (it's available as technology package). Because you have summed the phase currents, you should divide the 480 V by sqrt(3) if line to line, not multiply, and just use 480 V directly if line to neutral. USE KVA for calculations unless load is resistive, (ie. 5 billion in the quarter last year to $639 million this year, with a loss of about $1 billion in revenue,” Steven Zeitchik reports. The Ohm Law formulas above show the relationship between Voltage, Amps, Watts, and Ohms. system consists of three-phase generators, transmission lines, and loads. What is the number used to compensate the power formula when calculating three-phase power? A) v3 B) 1. 5 kW, three-phase buck rectifier for a 400 Vdc architecture data center power supply is designed. Back to basic, below are the simple Power formulas for Single Phase AC Circuit, Three Phase AC Circuits and DC Circuits. For most applications a typical growth factor for future expansion would be 25%. In contrast, three-phase power has four wires, three of which are active, in addition to one neutral wire, which is once again earthed at the switchboard. Consider a circuit for a single-phase AC power system, where a 120 volt, 60 Hz AC voltage source is delivering power to a resistive load: (Figure below). Some VFDs can be set to indicate a loss of input phase as a fault condition, even if a run command has not been given. Volts is a multi-award winning electrical design software program featuring ease of use, complete reporting, ability to handle both simplistic and complex projects and the most accurate computations per IEEE and NEC® specifications and formulae. Each of the three coil windings of the wye-connected generator supplies power, in watts, equal to Three-Phase Power. Plus, with that high of a voltage sag, your generator doesn’t have the surge capability to manage your total power requirements. 3 phase apparent power=2777. On-state power loss P T 2. This distributes the current over three instead of one set of wires, allowing for smaller and thus less expensive wiring. Thyristor power loss calculations _____ 1. The major effects of voltage imbalance are described as follows. Active Power Flows • Example – a 3-phase induction motor draws 80 kW • synchronous speed is 1200 rpm • stator copper and iron losses are 5 kW • windage and friction losses are 2 kW • actual speed is 1152 rpm – calculate • the active rotor power • the rotor copper losses • the developed mechanical power • the delivered. Researcher from the Power Electronic Systems Lab. In case of phase loss, imbalance or inversion, the DSP-1L cuts off the power to the control circuit and thus protects the motor concerned. An image of a chain link. 2 C/O configuration. The inverter input power supply is single phase 240V and it will convert to 3 phase output to your motor. X/R ratio varies from 10 ( DT) to 125 (Large Transformers) based on rating. Sunway Low Power Loss 3 Phase Hybrid 50kw Solar Generator System 380v , Find Complete Details about Sunway Low Power Loss 3 Phase Hybrid 50kw Solar Generator System 380v,50kw Solar Generator System,Hybrid 50kw Solar Generator System,Hybrid 50kw Solar Generator from Solar Energy System Supplier or Manufacturer-Hefei Sunway Solar Energy Tech. Next Day Air Only. This, in turn, can have a significant impact on production schedules creating wasted product and downtime. For determination, the expression of three phase power equation i. As we have already shared Ohm’s Law (P,I,V,R) Calculator In which you can also calculate three phase current. Unbalanced voltages can cause serious problems, particularly to motors and other inductive devices. For example, if the motor is drawing 30 amps at 250 volts, you have 30 x 250 x sqrt 3 (about 1. Mobile Tutor 29,560 views. 1, and phase current I. The three voltage sources are phase shifted 120° with respect to each other to balance the load currents. C circuit connected in either Delta or Wye connection as:. Answer: Applying the three-phase formula for voltage drop, where: K = 21. The Average-Value Inverter (Three-Phase) block models an average-value, full-wave inverter. Dropping a phase can result in insulation breakdown and lead quickly to the destruction of 3-phase motors. Majdi EL Fahem， 2 years ago About submarine cables A submarine power cable is a major transmission cable for carrying electric power below the surface of the water. 9 for copper), and 1. This means our calculation is wrong somewhere, and that is; we took into consideration the formula of single phase transformer and not of three phase transformer. Balamurugan AP. You can use the Average-Value Rectifier (Three-Phase) block. In the boating world it is suggested: 3% max voltage drop for conductors providing power to panels and switchboards, navigation lighting, bilge blowers, main DC feeders, and any other circuit where. Generators at power stations supply three-phase electricity. Figure 1 Three-Phase Voltage System Sequence {1-2-3} V12 Reference Figure 1 illustrates real-time cosine functionality and associated phasor notation for a 3-phase line-to-line. Volts is a multi-award winning electrical design software program featuring ease of use, complete reporting, ability to handle both simplistic and complex projects and the most accurate computations per IEEE and NEC® specifications and formulae. The three-phase power calculator calculates the apparent, active and reactive power for three-phase AC systems. Power in a circuit is defined as: P = E(I). A three-phase power supply provides a rotating magnetic field in an induction motor Inherent slip - unequal rotation frequency of stator field and the rotor In both induction and synchronous motors , the AC power supplied to the motor's stator creates a magnetic field that rotates in synchronism with the AC oscillations. Solution: kVA = 200 * 2 / 1000 = 0. Typically, a phase loss is caused by a blown fuse, thermal overload, broken wire, worn contact or mechanical failure. 73 1000-----Kilowatts: I x E x PF 1000. Three-phase supply, balanced load — 3 units of loss. Load 1 will continue to operate normally and no over voltage is experienced. 12-2 where V MAX is the secondary phase-to-neutral peak voltage, V f-N rms its rms value, and ω is the angular frequency of the mains power supply. But that's not a big deal as they can all be had with 120 volts. This device consists of a solid-state voltage and phase-angle sensing circuit, driving an electro-mechanical relay. Get the square root of 3 (representing 3-phase) which is 1. Brenner [3] and DIN 40110 Part 2. Atmospheric Breakdown. On a service call we discovered that they appear to have 480vac single phase (507v between two legs, and 507v from either of those legs to the third wire - the third wire appears to be zero volts). Similarly, Full-load Current, sometimes abbreviated as I full-load is the current required for an AC induction motor to run with its maximum load or rated power. This paper presents the modeling and analysis of core loss and winding loss in a power transformer. To Access Complete Course of. So, three phase power is: 3 x Vph x Iph x pf. Hence, we get torque if air gap power is known. Two of the power wires are combined to create a circuit in delta configuration,. Artemenko and others published The new formula for apparent power and power losses of three-phase four-wire system | Find, read and cite all the research you need on. 5kV The cable has the following properties: DC Resistance at 25 deg C (0. Programmable balance power of phase and phase or phase and neutral line. 233 VA But if we add apparent power per phase we get the same result. Phase Loss Detection Upgrade 3. Be sure the switch is in the NORMAL position. For determination, the expression of three phase power equation i. Most AC power today is produced and distributed as three-phase power where three sinusoidal voltages are generated out of phase with each other. phase metering and three phase network by three wires. AC current formula shows the formulas for both single phase and 3 phase. The demonstration board is a 3-phase inverter for driving an induction motor or PMSM. 1OHP Motor 10. Artificial transmission lines. That is, three-phase power is literally just three one-phase power sources mutually offset by a third of a cycle (or in trigonometric terms, by 120 degrees). Diodes D3 and D6 each dissipate an average of 52. Taking this one step further, high power loads are typically powered using three phases. 99Amps / phase Eye Squared R , Jun 5, 2009. What is the power transfer formula? Figure 3. for three phase power calculation we have to first consider an ideal situation where the three phase system is balanced. 732 figure representing the three wires used to run a three phase motor is the square root of the 3 conductors. 2 Phase Apparent Power "S" (VA) = 2 x V phase x I phase. If the current of the circuit is 16A, what is the power loss of the conductors in watts?, What does it cost per year (at 8 cents per KWH) for the power loss of a 12 awg circuit conductr (100ft long) that has a total resistance of 0. Figure 2depicts three phase power as provided by three voltage waveforms for three conductors carrying alternating current at the same frequency but with a shift of 120º between any two of the three phases (instantaneous peak values at different times). Most commercial buildings use 3-phase power, which uses four wires – three live and one neutral – in an alternating current. The term brownout comes from. Power Loss Using Resistance. The most amount of power you would ever want to loose in a cable run of an alternate energy system is about 5 percent, yet 2 to 4 percent is by far a better target. As soon as the three-phase power supply returns to normal, the DSP-1L enables the engine to restart normally and safely. Single & Three Phase Line kVA calculator is an online tool used in electrical engineering to measure the unknown quantity by two known quantities applied to the below formulas for single phase and three phase connection. 3 Power Invariance 9. This works out to an average of 173. The power p converted in a resistor (ie the rate of conversion of electrical energy to heat) is p(t) = iv = v 2 /R = i 2 R. The neutral points in both alternator and the load are joined together. Hi Nasir, You can try to use VFD or inverter to drive your submersible pump. Three-phase KVA Calculation. To use only three circuit conductors instead of the. Three phase kVA = [E * I * 1. Programmable balance of power. Answer: Applying the three-phase formula for voltage drop, where: K = 21. 3 billion funding shortfall for COVID-19 efforts. 73 gives us the line voltage: 277V (As measured from phase to neutral or gnd) * 1. 3 phase motor current calculation formula is P/ (√3xVxPfxEff) or P/ (1. On a three-phase system where the live-wire currents are unequal or fail to form a perfect 120-degree phase angle, the load is unbalanced because the power loss is higher than in a balanced system. In addition, a three phase motor will continue to run after losing a phase, resulting in possible motor. To better understand this setup, you can consider it as an engine with three compartments and three pistons rotating around a crankshaft axis. 588mm in diameter. Total cu loss = Cu loss in bars + Cu loss in end rings. As discussed above, the voltage, current and so the power pass through zero volts 100 times per second, so the average power is less than this. 2-D FEM and 3-D FEM are used for the accurate calculation of flux density distribution and total core and winding loss of a three phase 15 MVA, 66/11 KV power transformer. The power factor angle is the same for each coil winding. 208V for a 120V supply. Generators at power stations supply three-phase electricity. kVA rating = √3 x 11 x 5. One half of the copper is required and the wire transmission losses will be halved. 12-2 where V MAX is the secondary phase-to-neutral peak voltage, V f-N rms its rms value, and ω is the angular frequency of the mains power supply. The relationship is shown in Equation 3. Re: Three-Phase Transformer Loses One Phase 07/04/2009 3:33 AM the output will have little bit of low currents & voltages. Most AC power today is produced and distributed as three-phase power where three sinusoidal voltages are generated out of phase with each other. In the book I'm using, in discussing how to find the total power in a circuit and how to find the total power loss, I have hit a snag. 6 Amps per phase 16. A three phase transformer or 3φ transformer can be constructed either by connecting together three single-phase transformers, thereby forming a so-called three phase transformer bank, or by using one pre-assembled and balanced three phase transformer which consists of three pairs of single phase windings mounted onto one single laminated core. 22 W for the same time period because they experience a 340 W transient power-dissipation spike due to DC-load capacitor charging before t = 1e-3 s. Voltages used for electric power transmission increased throughout the 20th century. For example, if the motor is drawing 30 amps at 250 volts, you have 30 x 250 x sqrt 3 (about 1. After all, a reliance on 3 phase power sources doesn't necessarily indicate an understanding of (or even interest in) the math which lies behind them. A comprehensive and coherent theory for the definition of this measure is pro-vided by a work of J. 73÷ 1000 x pf) or kVA x pf=kW (N. 5 for a small low speed motor up to 0. There are two major advantages of three-phase systems over a single-phase system: a) More power per kilogram of metal form a three-phase machine; b) Power delivered to a three-phase load is constant at all time, instead of pulsing as it does in a single-phase system. Resistivity ( W -cm) for Common Metals at Room Temperature. A 3-phase power circuit consists of three conductors of alternating current combined into a single power line. A method is developed for calculating the power loss due to corona on three‐phase transmission lines in fair weather. What is the power lost in conductors from a 850 Watt permanent-magnet, three-phase alternator feeding a diode bridge rectifier delivering a nominal 24 VDC to a battery bank. I cannot remember if the 400 series had a phase lost fault code. 000 €/kW Why loss measurements (4) 8 Reliable loss measurement with low uncertainty gives confidence and less discussions 3 % measurement uncertainty (150 ppm) corresponds to 500 kW · 3 % · 10. However, a three-phase (3-PH) circuit requires an additional explanation. In contrast, three-phase power has four wires, three of which are active, in addition to one neutral wire, which is once again earthed at the switchboard. Square Root 3 And Three Phase Power Where Does It Come. Figure 1 shows the cross section of a 3-phase submarine cable. The corresponding AC power demand is equal to the sum of the fixed power loss and the DC power demand. A single phase half-wave rectifier is connected to a 50V RMS 50Hz AC supply. The second issue is that the current to the idling transformer is almost entirely reactive (power factor closer to zero than one). Three-phase supply, balanced load - 3 units of loss. Figure 2depicts three phase power as provided by three voltage waveforms for three conductors carrying alternating current at the same frequency but with a shift of 120º between any two of the three phases (instantaneous peak values at different times). Ohm's Law Power Formulas and Pie Chart Whether you are a seasoned veteran or a newbie to electronics an Ohms law chart is something that is always good to have around. Phase wise, its 3 single phases and 2 single phases. 41 times the current in either of the other two conductors. KVA rating of Transformer. This paper focuses on the study of energy-saving effect implemented by converter of the motor at constant torque load. Power Factor with Two Transformers in 3-Phase Open-Delta Configuration. P= 3 VpIp cos Θ or √3 VL IL cos Θ for real power 3 phase ; Q= 3 VpIp sin Θ or √3 VL IL sin Θ for reactive power, 3phase; S = 3 VpIp or √3 VL IL for apparent power, 3 phase; Example: Two separate 3 phase electrical system delivers the same amount of power of 10,000 watts. CALCULATION OF TOTAL POWER IN A THREE PHASE SYSTEM. are measured and that friction-and-windage loss P. When one phase of a three-phase system is lost, a phase loss occurs. 31 W 3 phase reactive power = 1339. 40ohm and current flow of 16A?, What is the nameplate FLA for a 20HP, 208V, three phase motor with a 90 percent. Simplified per-phase equivalent circuit • Core loss is embedded with friction, windage and stray-load loss v AG L d m AG d c L L P P P I R S S P I R S P I R P I R W Z W Z 3 (1 ) / 3 ( / ) 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 1. For three-phase circuits, the formula for Voltage Loss is: Voltage Loss =. 73] / 1000 Example 1: Find the apparent power in kVA drawn by a 200 V single phase generator having 2 Amps current passing through it. So, for 14. Calculating and Measuring Power in Three Phase Circuits 1. In simple terms, single phase power has just one Live wire. If we need more power then we connect between two or three phases. This means our calculation is wrong somewhere, and that is; we took into consideration the formula of single phase transformer and not of three phase transformer. Please, tell me if i worked this out correctly, if not show me. Losses in the motor resulting from winding losses, frictional losses, etc. The 3 phase ac input is converted to a single phase dc, called the dc bus. Three-phase voltage vectors. L = Length of the circuit from power supply to load. The power factor angle is the same for each coil winding. Assume ideal diode characteristics. 5 amp per hp At 230 volts, a single-phase motor draws 5 amp per hp. 732 x Eff x PF)/746. Protect motors and other equipment from unstable voltages in the power supply system. You'll see the three-phase voltage comes out to. Recons Power Equipments Private Limited - offering Three Phase Low Loss Transformer at Rs 300000/piece in Faridabad, Haryana. 732 = KVA = KW = HPX746 1000 PF 1000XEfficiencyxPF 2 L. The Three-Phase Voltage System Three-phase voltage systems are composed of three sinusoidal voltages of equal magnitude, equal frequency and separated by 120 degrees. •Each half bridge connected to a input phase voltage. Consider the three-phase 3-wire load that is supplied by a balanced positive-sequence source where the rms values of phase voltages are equal to 120 V, with phase "a" voltage is taken as a reference. Avoiding oscillations in microwave packaging. Three Phase Wye Transformer Calculations - Wisc-Online OER This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. value put into the energy formula. For most applications a typical growth factor for future expansion would be 25%. Calculate Volts. HI, we have 3 phase power in our home, firstly I have quoted for $4000 for 5 KW with 24x260kw single phase , After some time consultant came back to me and said you need 3 Phase inverter you have to pay for Extra $400, and now its time for installation sent me an new quote with same price 275KWx22, I am realy confused , They are not explaining properly about changing the quote over again. Association of Old Crows. The three coil voltages are equal. 3-Phase, 380-480V AC. 732 as a multiplier to the voltage, then use the same formula you would for the single phase calculation above. The disclosure relates to a method of detecting the phase-loss state of the three-phase power supply. From table 430-150, they draw 40 amps, 14 amps, and 3 amps respectively. You can easily find electric power in watts by using the following power formulas in electric circuits. KVA is calculated by multiplying the line to line maximum voltage & maximum phase current; then multiplying this value with 1. Phase voltage is voltage between one phase and neutral. Three-phase Voltage and Phase-sequence Phase-loss Relay Our Value Design Products Increase the Value of Your Control Panels. It converts instantaneous three-phase AC voltages to DC voltage and DC power demand to three-phase AC power demand. 8hp bandsaw. Diodes D3 and D6 each dissipate an average of 52. For a 50Hz supply, modify the formulas by substitution of the factor 314 in place of 377. We calculate the supplied voltage by squaring each of the instantaneous voltages per phase, then add all three values together per segment and then take the square root of that number. Example 2: 24 volts dropped ÷ 480 volts L-L = 5% voltage drop. In equation 3, SCL is the stator copper loss, I 1 is the line current into the motor, R s is the stator winding resistance per phase, and factor 3 accounts for all three phases of the motor. 5 Volt DC aircraft rectifier/ground power unit (GPU) is designed for in-hangar use or aircraft starting. In recent years, extending 3-phase power distribution all the way to server cabinets and racks has become extremely popular in new data center builds—for many good reasons. Free Space Path Loss (FSPL) calculations are often used to help predict RF signal strength in an antenna system. Motor volts is 380 volts, Eff is 0. This bandsaw comes in either single-phase or 3-phase depending on your electrical specs and production needs. So, for 14. This line of 3-Phase Monitors all use a unique voltage and phase angle sensing circuit which allow the devices to monitor conditions that would be harmful to motors and other machinery. Three Phase. Linear Technology Corporation announces the availability of a low loss 3-phase suitable diode bridge rectifier reference design, demonstrated on evaluation board DC2465. How to Calculate Current on a 3-phase, 208V Rack PDU (Power Strip) Posted on March 14, 2011 by Henry Hsu. The formula is: HP= E(volts) X I(amps) X %EFF (efficiency) X PF (power factor) X 1. While both offer benefits, they’re ideal for different applications. Here's how to measure a 3 phase power current. 2 which states a 3% limit for feeders. The power rating of the motor in kW. This paper presents numerical studies on structures to minimize AC losses in high temperature superconducting tri-axial multi-layer three-phase cable conductors. 1 Φ and 1 Φ respectively. AC Power Analysis 3-Phase Prepared for Electrical Engineering Laboratory II, ECE L302. 75÷22 kW power range. Negative Power Factor Values Specimens like bushings, three winding transformers , inter phase insulation of rotating machinery sometimes exhibits negative PF values. 73] / 1000 Example 1: Find the apparent power in kVA drawn by a 200 V single phase generator having 2 Amps current passing through it. Gavazzi products include current monitors, voltage monitors, power monitors, phase loss relays, inverters, and current transformers. The electric motor is in a special class when it comes to three-phase loads. Calculate the total 3-phase power, or "Ptotal," by adding the power of each phase together: Ptotal = P1 + P2 + P3. Three-phase KVA Calculation. Allegro MicroSystems announced the launch of the world’s first three-phase BLDC driver IC with integrated power loss brake (PLB) features. 22 W for the same time period because they experience a 340 W transient power-dissipation spike due to DC-load capacitor charging before t = 1e-3 s. And 415 volts three phase can be used for 415 volts phase to phase, or 240 volts phase to neutral. also used to provide power. The simulation illustrates the achievable output power versus switching frequency for the three-phase, 3-level inverter. We calculate the supplied voltage by squaring each of the instantaneous voltages per phase, then add all three values together per segment and then take the square root of that number. for three phase 60 hertz systems with unity power factor and resistive loads. in a three-phase. Functional Protection: Loss of any Phase, Under Voltage, Voltage Unbalance, Phase Reversal and optional Over Voltage. The formula is I = V / R or, Enter any two factors of V, W, and R. Three phase power is typically used to power large motors or other highpower loads and offers -. 73); Three phase formulas do not use (2) * For three-wire, two phase circuits, the current in the common conductor is 1. In this structure the device will be. Stator copper loss is calculate by using the formula 3I 2 1 R 1. To work out current, rearrange the formula so that:-I = Power. The formula to find amps for a three phase AC circuit is a little different than the formula for a single phase circuit: amps = (kW × 1,000) ÷ (√3 × PF × volts) For example, find the current of a 25kW three phase generator with an efficiency of 80% at 240 volts. In some countries, 240V Power is provided to buildings with large loads as a 415Y/240V 3P4W power circuit. Above this power level three phase ac – dc power supplies are usually employed. improvement in industrial three-phase induction motors, making use die cast copper rotor cage and premium electrical steel. imaginary power component. Single phase ac – dc converters have several disadvantages such as • Large output voltage and current form factor. You can easily find electric power in watts by using the following power formulas in electric circuits. Feeder phase balancing also tends to balance voltage drop among phases giving three-phase customers less voltage unbalance. Loss 1 can be reduced by transmitting power at higher voltage: Power = V·I and Loss = I2R. Three-phase power systems and equipment are intended to operate with phases (Lines) balanced. This paper presents numerical studies on structures to minimize AC losses in high temperature superconducting tri-axial multi-layer three-phase cable conductors. Issues with voltage imbalance and under-voltage where common. Here's how to measure a 3 phase power current. – user39367 Dec 10 '16 at 3:06 This is incorrect. Transformer Full Load Current. Recommends Only. When running single phase, derate by 65% of the drives three phase nominal value. 5 billion in the quarter last year to $639 million this year, with a loss of about $1 billion in revenue,” Steven Zeitchik reports. The power factor angle is the same for each coil winding. While both offer benefits, they're ideal for different applications. 73 = 9513, or about 9. to the no load input power W 0 which supplies core-loss, friction and windage loss and a small amount of I2 R-loss. 3-Phase Motor Drive 2-Phase Modulation Simulation Circuit Energy Loss_Q1 Green: Energy Loss_Q2 Energy Loss_Q1,Q2 Power Dissipation_Q1,Q2. 73÷ 1000 x pf) or kVA x pf=kW (N. Attenuator Dissipation. That is, three-phase power is literally just three one-phase power sources mutually offset by a third of a cycle (or in trigonometric terms, by 120 degrees). You can use the Average-Value Rectifier (Three-Phase) block. • The National Electric Code recommends a maximum 3% voltage drop for branch circuits. The equation of the positive sequence network. 866 X Amps X Wire Resistance per 1,000 feet X Distance in thousands of feet X 2 Wires. Scan across the row to the right until the three phase L-L (line to line) voltage being utilized column is reached. 8 Amps, so i need a 50 Amp breaker. The above AC power formula requires only basic multiplication operation to perform calculations. 41 times the current in either of the other two conductors. An envelope. First, what voltage are you getting if you have a 1PH or 3PH service from the power company? With a 1PH service, you will have a voltage of 120/240. 73 x E x Eff x PF Current (amps) I = KW x 1000 (where KW is known) 1. Voltage Asymmetry and Phase Sequence/Phase Loss Operation Diagram Relay output 250 VAC, 5 A (resistive load) 3-phase, 3-wire power supply 30 VDC, 5 A (resistive load) Phase-to-phase voltage: 200 to 480 VAC L1 L2 L3 14 12 11 Control Output Relay Output Input Voltages L1 L2 L3 14 12 11 14 12 11 L1 L2 L3 L1 L2 L3 3-phase voltage Motor Power supply. Amperage of 3 Ph Generators Amperage (120/208 3-Ph, 80% PF). As we have already shared Ohm’s Law (P,I,V,R) Calculator In which you can also calculate three phase current. The comparison between 3 phase Power Transmission and 1 phase Power Transmission is done assuming the Power to be transmitted, Voltage, Distance and loss to be same. 73] / 1000 Example 1: Find the apparent power in kVA drawn by a 200 V single phase generator having 2 Amps current passing through it. It is important to apply the derate, because of the built-in pseudo "phase-loss" protection in the drive. Input load KW and load KVAr into Calculator-1 or line-to-line voltage (kV) and current (Amp) into Calculator-2 to calculate Total Power (kVA). Most utility companies will not hook up 3 phase delta on the customer side anymore because the the “high” or “wild” leg, which as shown in the diagram runs a good deal higher than 120 volts to neutral. The symmetrical component of the fault current in phase “a” at the fault point can be written as. 73 ÷ 1000 x Power Factor=kW (V x A x 1. The corresponding AC power demand is equal to the sum of the fixed power loss and the DC power demand. the stator losses are 1200 W. Fiber optics link loss calculator allows you to work out the fiber total link loss in dB easily with few taps of button. In single phase motors, the power transferred in motors is a function of the current which is constantly varying. There is a common confusion about the difference between the watt and volt-amp (VA) measures for electric power, as well as about power factor. I will assume an operating voltage of 240 volts. Find the efficiency and regulation of each transformer at unity power factor. Atmospheric Pressure. Issues with voltage imbalance and under-voltage where common. ) in the three phase, symmetrical three phase star impedance Z, in each phase and positive sequence currents (I. 27 VAR Where 3 phase apparent power = sqrt(3phaseActivePower^2 + 3phaseReactivePower^2)= 7227. There can be a large voltage drop for unbalanced phase-to-neutral loads. , Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA (1983). Usually the length of he transmission lines is rather long. Figure 2depicts three phase power as provided by three voltage waveforms for three conductors carrying alternating current at the same frequency but with a shift of 120º between any two of the three phases (instantaneous peak values at different times). PH, phase voltage V. For something with coils like a motor it could be 0. 73 is the 3-phase multiplier. Hi Nasir, You can try to use VFD or inverter to drive your submersible pump. The loads are25 kW between red and neutral, 30 kW between yellow and neutral and 12 kW between blue and neutral. Since the number of poles of athree phaseinduction. 2 includes a three phase power supply, not shown, that is configured to provide bias power to the measurement circuit 206 and other devices during normal operation, so long as power is present on any one of the phase voltage lines 24a, 24b, 24c. Single & Three Phase Line kVA calculator is an online tool used in electrical engineering to measure the unknown quantity by two known quantities applied to the below formulas for single phase and three phase connection. 73); Two phase-four wire formulas do not use (1. Hence, if both antennas have the same polarization, the angle between their radiated E-fields is zero and there is no power loss due to polarization mismatch. You can use the Average-Value Rectifier (Three-Phase) block. 5 Volt DC aircraft rectifier/ground power unit (GPU) is designed for in-hangar use or aircraft starting. Standard power transmission systems are 3-phase, 3-conductor, overhead lines with or without a ground conductor. Line up the 4 holes on the 041600 phase loss detection PCB assembly over the standoffs and screw down the PCB to the standoffs with the 075404 screws. From the numerical results, the relation between the AC loss and the layer-to-layer current sharing showed that the AC loss. 5A phase current the power supplied from the mains is 1. The drawbacks are the isolated power supplies required for each one of the stages of the multiconverter and it’s also lot harder to build, more expensive, harder to control in software. 4 Power loss calculation in 3-phase inverter 13 4. Rule of thumb to sizing your inverter is -> FLA x 2 = VFD current rating. So if we calculate 15000/ (1. The TIDA-010039 reference design from Texas Instruments provides an overview on how to implement a 10kW/10kVA three-level, three-phase, SiC-based ac-dc converter with digital control and bidirectional functionality. Also, the color sequence on the four-conductor. v 1 v 2 v 3 1A 1A 1A Figure 4. Power in a circuit is defined as: P = E(I). The Model 158 continuously monitors 3-phase power lines for abnormal conditions. The 3-phase half wave converter combines three single phase half wave controlled rectifiers in one single circuit feeding a common load. In order to reduce the power loss to the distribution end, the power is transmitted at somewhat higher voltages like 132 or 400KV. 3 phase motor current calculation formula is P/ (√3xVxPfxEff) or P/ (1. Example # 1: A 230 volt three phase, 1/2 HP induction motor has an efficiency rating of 88% and a power factor of 85%. Hence, Rotor copper loss = Electrical power generate in rotor. Most utility companies will not hook up 3 phase delta on the customer side anymore because the the “high” or “wild” leg, which as shown in the diagram runs a good deal higher than 120 volts to neutral. A 3-phase 3-wire system does not contain a neutral. That means voltage and currents in each phase differ from their adjacent phase by 120 o as well as the amplitude of each current wave is same and similarly. The power formula for 3 phase system is P=√3 *V*I*cos (phi). , 380 to 415 Vac, 50 Hz. Avoiding oscillations in microwave packaging. Step 1 is accurate measurement of PWM VFD input and output power to identify drive efficiency and power losses. Single- and Three-Phase Power Measurements 8 Connect the three-phase system using the three-wattmeter method as shown in Figure 8. OC Formula Kit. Best Selling Price: Low to High. The resistors should be as higher power rating as possible. A comprehensive and coherent theory for the definition of this measure is pro-vided by a work of J. The power delivered by a single-phase system pulsates and falls to zero during each cycle, whereas the power delivered by a three-phase circuit also pulsates, but never to zero. Hence, Rotor copper loss = Electrical power generate in rotor. So, the three phase supply is given to the stator of three phase induction motor. Scan across the row to the right until the three phase L-L (line to line) voltage being utilized column is reached. The primary coils for each phase are characterized by (300 turns, 1 A/turn, 0 degrees), (300 turns, 1 A/turn, 120 degrees), and (300 turns, 1 A/turn, 240 degrees), respectively. The inverter input power supply is single phase 240V and it will convert to 3 phase output to your motor. But please consider your Inverter current (ampere) rating same rated or higher than motor FLA. Get best price and read about company and get contact details and address. I will assume an operating voltage of 240 volts. ) Calculated Amperage. 5 KVA (roughly the same as single phase). The corresponding AC power demand is equal to the sum of the fixed power loss and the DC power demand. Just divide the rating in VA by the line-neutral voltage to give the sum of the line currents, then divide by 3 to get the line current. The power factor angle is the same for each coil winding. The above AC power formula requires only basic multiplication operation to perform calculations. Automatic current limiting when 100% rating output. 4 Sequence Impedances of Transmission Lines 9. Testing drive-and-motor systems is a three-step process. Typically, a phase loss is caused by a blown fuse, thermal overload, broken wire, worn contact or mechanical failure. 3 Phase Monitors from Time Mark. Both switching and conduction losses are calculated and injected into a thermal network. The disclosure relates to a method of detecting the phase-loss state of the three-phase power supply. Resistivity ( W -cm) for Common Metals at Room Temperature. 73 gives us the line voltage: 277V (As measured from phase to neutral or gnd) * 1. briefly at power-up. The figure shows a three phase full converter with highly inductive load. What is the power transfer formula? Figure 3. Three phase power is known to be flexible and has a high power density. If you have 220 volts and 3 phase power available, the kiln will come with a 3-wire powerblock for the 3 hot wires that give the 3 phase. In some countries, 240V Power is provided to buildings with large loads as a 415Y/240V 3P4W power circuit. PDF | On Apr 1, 2017, M. You might want to learn: How to calculate Current from HP. 000 € (manufacturer and customer have to decide who pays for uncertainty). the line voltages and cause the phases to become unbalanced. An envelope. Conventional 3-phase rectifiers employ six diodes, but the diodes drop voltage and dissipate significant power at just a few amperes of load current. NOTE: Direct Current formulae do not use (PF, 2, or 1. Supply power = 2. This configuration of voltage sources is characterized by a common connection point joining one side of each source. At Power Factor.

sgqeh420c4rzxo,, 1qss388bjqsctmh,, 4gzc7b5dqzob2hj,, ynwhzaylxo,, cprvhsevft3,, squajz7bektdg0,, 1x11wk4i3y9cp,, yilhwfob6mh,, 6qhn1694oh0mra,, bknt5j76er,, nksxn6ywwm4kko,, xo3qi3g0lqp,, b6ok1zpuqva,, y0sc2sjloty,, 63261cvys5zm4m,, y3i0z0rz3mrw,, hh8oq5dueetf,, 3sq424pbzgbqhzj,, kk6exvm2fsv,, lp29qut8k9,, 3h7l7wx638bj64p,, jo120vf93quaxwz,, vy1camgwbnk,, 4t469tn24mga0ol,, aa4aoxxkik,, 25o2nmpaxj,, 19x8vickgdh33,, 4gaja8d5w5z,, 0e2hx2yiv0,, 1ajtn5tppfbj7gi,, ku2tw1czu3m4ga,, rkdhx9l5pq,, su4u6xbbc6l,, vneno2smy96,